Notícia

Fragmento de Jarra de Pedra com o Nome de Rimush

Fragmento de Jarra de Pedra com o Nome de Rimush


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Dez principais descobertas em arqueologia bíblica em 2020

Uma das minhas épocas favoritas do ano é o final de dezembro, quando posso relembrar tudo o que aconteceu nos últimos 12 meses. 2020 foi um ano difícil para muitos e, no mundo da arqueologia bíblica, a pandemia levou ao cancelamento de muitas escavações nas terras da Bíblia. Apesar disso, houve muitas descobertas importantes feitas que afirmam detalhes nas Escrituras e nos ajudam a entender o texto bíblico em mais detalhes. Portanto, ao olhar para 2020, aqui estão as dez principais descobertas do ano.

Se você é novo em minha lista anual dos dez melhores, aqui estão meus critérios:

  1. Essas descobertas devem estar diretamente relacionadas com pessoas, locais ou eventos mencionado na Escritura, ou à composição da própria Escritura, em oposição às muitas descobertas que são feitas em terras bíblicas que nos ensinam muito sobre as diferentes culturas. Eles são úteis, mas optei por restringir o foco da minha lista.
  2. Eles devem ser descobertas ou novos estudos sobre descobertas, ao contrário de anúncios. Por exemplo, em maio de 2020, foi anunciado que novas escavações foram planejadas em Petra, na Jordânia. Este é um sítio arqueológico importante e foi um grande anúncio, mas não o estou considerando para esta lista. Por fim, devo observar que minha lista inclui não apenas descobertas, mas também estudos, muitas vezes uma descoberta & # 8217s toda a importância torna-se conhecida apenas quando é finalmente publicada em um periódico. Como arqueólogo, Dr. Scott Stripling, diz: “O objetivo da arqueologia é a publicação, não apenas a escavação. Se destruirmos as evidências e não disponibilizarmos as descobertas a outros, teremos causado mais danos do que benefícios ”.

Dito isso, aqui estão as dez principais descobertas da arqueologia bíblica em 2020.


Coleções

Coleção da Biblioteca Britânica

Em 1994, a Biblioteca Britânica adquiriu um grupo de cerca de oitenta fragmentos do manuscrito Gandharan da primeira metade do século I. Esses manuscritos de casca de bétula foram armazenados em potes de barro, que os preservaram. Acredita-se que eles tenham sido encontrados no oeste do Paquistão, onde ficava Gandhara, enterrados em antigos mosteiros. Uma equipe está trabalhando, tentando decifrar os manuscritos: três volumes apareceram até hoje (2009). Os manuscritos foram escritos no idioma Gāndhārī usando a escrita Kharoṣṭhī e, portanto, às vezes também são chamados de Manuscritos Kharoṣṭhī.

A coleção é composta por diversos textos: a Dhammapada, discursos do Buda, como o Sutra de Rinoceronte, avadanas e Purvayogas, comentários e textos abhidharma.

Há evidências que sugerem que esses textos podem pertencer à escola Dharmaguptaka (Salomon 2000, p. & # 1605). Há uma inscrição em uma jarra para essa escola, e também há algumas evidências textuais. Em um ponto semi-relacionado, o texto de Gandhāran do Sutra de Rinoceronte contém a palavra mahayaṇaṣa, que alguns podem identificar com "Mahayana" (Salomon, 2000, p. & # 160127). No entanto, de acordo com Salomon, na ortografia Kharoṣṭhī não há razão para pensar que a frase em questão, amaṃtraṇa bhoti mahayaṇaṣa ("há chamadas da multidão"), tem qualquer conexão com o Mahayana. (Salomon, 2000, p. & # 160127).

The Senior Collection

A coleção Senior foi comprada por Robert Senior, um colecionador britânico. A coleção Sênior pode ser um pouco mais jovem do que a coleção da Biblioteca Britânica. Consiste quase inteiramente em sutras canônicos e, como a coleção da Biblioteca Britânica, foi escrito em casca de bétula e armazenado em potes de argila. [5] Os jarros trazem inscrições que se referem a nomes de meses macedônios em vez de indianos, como é característico da era Kaniska, da qual derivam. [6] Há uma "forte probabilidade de que os pergaminhos Sênior foram escritos, no mínimo, na última parte do primeiro século DC, ou, talvez mais provavelmente, na primeira metade do segundo século. Isso tornaria o Sênior pergaminhos um pouco, mas significativamente mais tarde do que os rolos da coleção da Biblioteca Britânica, que foram provisoriamente datados da primeira metade do primeiro século. " [7] Salomon escreve:

A coleção Sênior é superficialmente semelhante em caráter à coleção da Biblioteca Britânica, pois ambas consistem em cerca de duas dúzias de manuscritos de casca de bétula ou fragmentos de manuscritos organizados em rolo ou formato semelhante e escritos na escrita Kharosthi e na língua Gandhari. Ambos foram encontrados dentro de potes de barro com inscrições e acredita-se que ambos tenham vindo do mesmo local ou de locais próximos, em ou em torno de Hadda, no leste do Afeganistão. Mas em termos de conteúdo textual, as duas coleções diferem de maneiras importantes. Considerando que a coleção da Biblioteca Britânica era uma mistura diversa de textos de muitos gêneros diferentes escritos por cerca de duas dúzias de escribas diferentes (Salomon 1999: 22-55, especialmente 22-23 e 54-55), todos ou quase todos os manuscritos no A coleção sênior é escrita com a mesma caligrafia, e todas, exceto uma, parecem pertencer ao mesmo gênero, a saber, sutra. Além disso, enquanto todos os manuscritos da Biblioteca Britânica eram fragmentários e pelo menos alguns deles já estavam evidentemente danificados e incompletos antes de serem enterrados na antiguidade (Salomon 1999: 69-71 Salomon 2000: 20-23), alguns dos manuscritos seniores são ainda mais ou menos completos e intactos e deviam estar em boas condições quando foram enterrados. Assim, os manuscritos do Sênior, ao contrário dos manuscritos da Biblioteca Britânica, constituem uma coleção unificada, coesa e pelo menos parcialmente intacta que foi cuidadosamente enterrada como tal. [7]

Ele ainda relata que "o maior número de paralelos para os sutras na coleção Sênior estão na Samyutta Nikaya e as coleções correspondentes em sânscrito e chinês. "[8]

A coleção Schøyen

As obras budistas da coleção Schøyen consistem em manuscritos de casca de bétula, folha de palmeira e velino. Acredita-se que eles tenham sido encontrados nas cavernas de Bamiyan, onde refugiados buscavam abrigo. A maioria desses manuscritos foi comprada por um colecionador norueguês, chamado Martin Schøyen, enquanto quantidades menores estão em posse de colecionadores japoneses. [2] Esses manuscritos datam do segundo ao oitavo século EC. Além dos textos em Gandhāri, a coleção Schøyen também contém importante material sútrico antigo em sânscrito. [9]

Os textos budistas da coleção Schøyen incluem fragmentos de textos canônicos de Suttas, Abhidharma, Vinaya e Mahayana. A maioria desses manuscritos foi escrita em escrita Brahmi, enquanto uma pequena parte foi escrita em escrita Gandhari / Kharoṣṭhī

Entre os primeiros textos Dharmaguptaka na Coleção Schøyen, há um fragmento na escrita Kharoṣṭhī que faz referência aos Seis Pāramitās, uma prática central para bodhisattvas no Budismo Mahāyāna. [10]

Universidade de Washington

Mais um manuscrito, escrito em casca de bétula em um mosteiro budista da tradição Abhidharma, do século I ou II dC, foi adquirido de um colecionador pelas Bibliotecas da Universidade de Washington em 2002. É um dos primeiros comentários sobre os ensinamentos do Buda, sobre o assunto do sofrimento humano.

O Khotan Dharmapada

Em 1892, uma cópia do Dhammapada escrita no Gandhārī Prakrit foi descoberta perto de Khotan em Xinjiang, no oeste da China. Ele foi quebrado e veio para a Europa em partes, algumas indo para a Rússia e outras para a França, mas infelizmente uma parte do manuscrito nunca apareceu no mercado e parece ter sido perdida. Em 1898, a maior parte do material francês foi publicado na Journal Asiatique. Em 1962, John Brough publicou os fragmentos russos e franceses coletados com um comentário.

A coleção "Split"

Sobre a coleção "Split", Harry Falk escreve: [11]

As origens locais da coleção atual não são claras. Várias partes dele foram vistas em Peshawar em 2004. De acordo com informantes geralmente confiáveis, a coleção de cascas de bétula foi encontrada em uma caixa de pedra na área da fronteira Paquistão-Afeganistão, que compreende a Agência Mohmand e Bajaur. Ele foi dividido na chegada e algumas partes estão agora em uma coleção ocidental, enquanto outras foram para uma agência do governo e outras partes ainda podem estar com o proprietário privado.

Em 2012, Harry Falk e Seishi Karashima publicaram um manuscrito Kharoṣṭhī danificado e parcial do Mahāyāna Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra. [12] É carbono datado de ca. 75 DC, tornando-o um dos mais antigos textos budistas existentes. É muito semelhante à primeira tradução chinesa do Aṣṭasāhasrikā por Lokakṣema (ca. 179 DC), cujo texto-fonte é considerado no idioma Gāndhārī. A comparação com o texto sânscrito padrão mostra que também é provável que seja uma tradução de Gāndhāri, pois se expande em muitas frases e fornece glosas para palavras que não estão presentes no Gāndhārī. Isso aponta para o texto sendo composto em Gāndhārī, a língua de Gandhāra (a região agora chamada de Fronteira Noroeste do Paquistão, incluindo Peshawar, Taxila e Vale Swat). O "Split" ms. é evidentemente uma cópia de um texto anterior, confirmando que o texto pode datar antes do primeiro século da era comum.


Esta pequena jarra de calcita (alabastro egípcio) provavelmente já conteve um tipo de óleo, óleo ou outro material precioso. A forma ovóide, a borda quadrada e as alças são características típicas do alabastron, um tipo de vaso de pedra egípcio comum da Vigésima Sexta Dinastia até o Período Romano. A particularidade deste jarro reside nas suas múltiplas inscrições, com dois textos em três escritas distintas, representando quatro línguas diferentes. Por meio dos diferentes roteiros e idiomas de suas inscrições, este pequeno frasco de cosméticos incorpora a diversidade e as amplas conexões políticas e econômicas do Egito do período persa.

A inscrição mais proeminente é a coluna vertical de hieróglifos delimitada por uma borda retangular. A inscrição hieroglífica começa com a cártula do faraó persa Xerxes I, seguida pelo epíteto "o grande Faraó". Os hieróglifos que escrevem "faraó" literalmente significam "a grande casa", por aa, que fornece a etimologia para o grego faraós, a origem do nosso próprio termo. Acima da inscrição hieroglífica, o mesmo nome e epíteto de Xerxes está escrito em três linhas horizontais de sinais cuneiformes que representam três línguas diferentes: persa antigo, elamita e acadiano. O texto horizontal curto à esquerda da coluna hieroglífica é um rótulo na escrita demótica, enquanto o cuneiforme é usado para escrever três línguas diferentes, a língua egípcia é aqui representada por duas letras diferentes.

Ao contrário do texto cuneiforme e hieroglífico que escreve um nome real, a inscrição demótica no frasco rotula o volume do vaso: 12 kepedj-unidades. o kepedj-unidade não é uma medida de volume egípcia nativa, mas parece ser um empréstimo do persa, e é interessante que este jarro seja fabricado em um recipiente egípcio nativo, mas rotulado com uma unidade de medida estrangeira. Um estudo moderno da embarcação indica que o volume da jarra é de cerca de 1,2 litros, sugerindo que um kepedj corresponde a aproximadamente 0,1 litro.

Período

Período Persa, reinado de Xerxes I

Dimensões

H. 22,5cm, W. 13cm, aro diam. 8,7cm

Museu

Coleção Yale Babylonian

Número de acesso

Aston, Vasos, materiais e formas de pedra do antigo Egito (Heidelberg, 1994), p. 166

Ritner, & ldquoO primeiro atestado do kpd-Measure, & rdquo in Peter Der Manuelian, ed., Estudos em homenagem a William Kelly Simpson (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1996), pp. 683-688.


Santos em potes de café: as relíquias recuperadas de um ícone de Christchurch

O ex-arquivista da Diocese Católica de Christchurch morreu em setembro passado. Mas aqui está ele, olhando para nós nos escritórios da diocese, um edifício indefinido perto do skatepark Washington Way. Na fotografia, emoldurada e fixada na parede, Clark ostenta um sorriso quase malicioso e, aparentemente, ele tinha um senso de humor perverso.

Quase 50 anos atrás, em 26 de abril de 1975 & ndash, o ano em que Robert Muldoon foi eleito pela primeira vez ao poder e Dame Whina Cooper liderou um h & # 299koi ao parlamento protestando contra a perda contínua das terras de M & # 257ori & ndash Clark cuidadosamente colocou uma coleção de relíquias sagradas em uma caixa de aço. Foi enterrado sob o chão da Catedral do Santíssimo Sacramento, um dos melhores edifícios da igreja na Australásia, e selado com uma polegada de concreto.

Mas ele obviamente pensou que havia uma chance de alguém desenterrá-los porque ele deixou um bilhete. Nele, Clark diz que as relíquias foram coletadas pelo bispo John Joseph Grimes SM, o primeiro bispo católico de Christchurch e a força motriz por trás da construção da catedral. Grimes, um inglês, adquiriu várias centenas de relíquias durante sua vida, muitas durante viagens à Europa. Um documento contemporâneo e talvez auto-engrandecedor nos arquivos da diocese descreve a coleção como a mais rica do hemisfério sul.

& ldquoCerca de trezentos em número, o mais precioso é um grande da Verdadeira Cruz. A seguir em importância estão as relíquias dos apóstolos, os principais mártires, confessores e virgens de vários séculos da Igreja ”, diz o relato.

Mas na década de 1970, as relíquias não eram mais consideradas du jour na igreja. Foi tomada a decisão de enterrá-los, e Clark era o homem certo para o trabalho. Na sexta-feira retrasada, uma semana depois de terem sido resgatados da catedral demolida, The Spinoff visitou os arquivos com o Dr. Chris Jones, um especialista em Europa medieval e professor associado da Universidade de Canterbury (UC). Tendo descrito anteriormente a coleção como uma espécie de quem e quem do cristianismo, Jones ficou incrivelmente animado. Nossa guia foi Triona Doocey, uma gregária irlandesa maravilhosa e atual arquivista da diocese.

“A maioria das pessoas coleciona cartões-postais”, disse Doocey, referindo-se a Grimes. & ldquoEle colecionou relíquias. & rdquo

Incrivelmente, Clark ou outra pessoa decidira enterrar as relíquias em potes de café Gregg & rsquos. Frascos de café! Um tanto perplexo com a natureza profana dos recipientes, Jones brincou que mesmo Martinho Lutero, o padre alemão e uma figura importante no movimento da Reforma que desafia a Igreja Católica, não teria ido tão longe. Doocey, que tinha calçado luvas pretas e estava colocando as relíquias em lençóis de tecido Chux azul e branco (CSI não era), disse que ela o pegou com Clark quando eles se viram no céu.

Uma seleção de relicários, em um navio incomum (Foto: Oliver Lewis)

Mas os potes funcionaram & ndash principalmente. A caixa de metal que os abrigava foi encontrada envolta em concreto e cheia de água, inundação que quase certamente ocorreu durante o processo de demolição. Doocey teve que drenar cuidadosamente alguns dos recipientes alagados. Dos dois grandes jarros Gregg & rsquos, um estava cheio de vários relicários de metal, pequenos recipientes ornamentados com os nomes das figuras sagradas cujas relíquias supostamente continham. São Francisco de Assis estava lá, assim como Maria Madalena, uma testemunha da crucificação.

Mas o frasco mais interessante, pelo menos para os morbidamente curiosos, era aquele cheio de ossos. Eu tive que continuar me lembrando que esses eram restos humanos, independentemente de sua veracidade como objetos de veneração, eles eram claramente de pessoas que já viveram. Quando Doocey abriu a jarra e começou a retirar os fragmentos, ela franziu o nariz. O cheiro era frio e terroso, como argila úmida e decomposição. Jones ficou entusiasmado, comentando como era estranho estar na presença das relíquias, como elas o aproximavam da Idade Média.

Padre Kevin ainda estava acima de nós na parede, sorrindo.

As relíquias são uma forma de memória física, uma conexão direta e tangível com o divino. Segundo Jones, são objetos que podem ser considerados repositórios de poder espiritual. Existem inúmeras falsificações e fraudes famosas & ndash os múltiplos prepúcios de Cristo, por exemplo, ou o Sudário de Torino & ndash, mas para muitas relíquias, o erudito da UC acredita que estaríamos errados se estivéssemos incrédulos. É possível rastrear sua autenticidade e procedência, principalmente aquelas da Idade Média em diante. Felizmente, um conselho da igreja no século 13 determinou que todas as novas relíquias deveriam ser autenticadas antes que pudessem ser exibidas. Junto com os próprios itens, o bispo Grimes coletou certificados de autenticação em um grande livro-razão encadernado em couro. O arquivo da diocese ainda o guarda, um catálogo de santos e mártires escrito em latim.

Como jornalista, sou cético. Mas eu quero acreditar.

Na mesa à nossa frente está uma mandíbula humana manchada pelo tempo. Parece estar rotulado com a palavra & ldquoVincent & rdquo. Doocey expôs todos os fragmentos. Para nossa surpresa, muitos são grandes e não os humildes lascas e fragmentos de osso que havíamos imaginado. Existe uma vértebra e, ali, parte de um osso do braço ou da perna. Junto com o arqueólogo que trabalha na demolição da catedral, Doocey planeja fotografar cada um dos ossos e então, trabalhando com o livro-razão que descreve as relíquias, tenta identificar cada um. A diocese ainda não decidiu o que fazer com eles, mas parece provável que pelo menos alguns serão enterrados na nova catedral. Nesse ínterim, Doocey pretende garantir que eles sejam tratados com a reverência e o respeito devido aos mortos.

Entre eles está Peter Chanel, um missionário francês que foi hackeado até a morte na ilha de Futuna em 1841 e foi o primeiro santo oceânico. Na mesa dos escritórios da diocese, Chanel está em um saco plástico. Ou, mais precisamente, um de seus ossos é. O fragmento foi triturado, misturado com relíquias de vários outros santos, aparentemente incluindo Thomas Becket & ndash, o arcebispo inglês que irritou o rei e foi assassinado em sua própria catedral em 1170 & ndash e colocado em uma cavidade no novo altar-mor da Catedral do Santíssimo Sacramento na década de 1970.

O fato de ter sido recuperado é mais do que um pouco milagroso. Durante a demolição, toneladas e toneladas de entulho caíram no interior da catedral, esmagando o altar-mor em pedacinhos. Do jeito que Doocey conta, a arqueóloga estava vasculhando as ruínas quando encontrou seus fragmentos. Incrivelmente, o pedaço de mármore atrás das relíquias enterradas ainda estava inteiro e identificável, então ela foi capaz de raspar os fragmentos e preservá-los.

Os ossos de santos, supostamente (foto: Oliver Lewis)

Se você descer a Barbadoes St hoje, a lacuna onde a catedral ficava é óbvia: um terreno baldio cercado e desolado. O edifício, que já foi um dos mais bonitos da cidade, senão do país, foi inaugurado em 1905. Por mais de um século, pairou sobre tudo, um monumento espiritual erguido em pedra cremosa de Amoreira e decorado com imponentes colunas clássicas. Inscrito acima deles no entablamento estava um comando escrito em latim, uma diretiva implorando aos espectadores que & ldquoLook! Este é o lugar onde Deus está entre os homens! & Rdquo

Deus já deixou o edifício. Para as pessoas familiarizadas com a cidade e a catedral, ao passar por ali você pode sentir sua ausência, aquela sensação de desorientação comum aos cantábricos que experimentaram os terremotos de 2010 e 2011 e que viram pontos de referência apagados, o aparentemente permanente arrasado. A diocese planeja erguer uma nova catedral em um local mais central, mas adorei o prédio antigo e, andando de bicicleta na maioria dos dias, senti que deveria escrever algo para comemorar seu destino.

No início, pensei que seria sobre os trabalhadores da demolição. Como eles devem se sentir, pensei, por estarem envolvidos na destruição de algo tão belo, que ressoa com significado. Em dezembro passado, vi um homem de alto nível inclinado sobre a cerca em um intervalo. Então eu perguntei a ele. "Eu sinto o significado", disse ele. Era difícil não, ele acrescentou, especialmente quando algumas das pessoas que vieram assistir estavam com lágrimas escorrendo pelo rosto. Então ele disse algo que me parou no meu caminho. Havia ossos em algum lugar do prédio, e eles tinham centenas de anos. O que? Achei que ele pudesse estar falando sobre os três bispos mortos enterrados na catedral, incluindo Grimes. Não, eles não, ele esclareceu. Relíquias sagradas.

Christchurch está muito distante das figuras e eventos significativos do Cristianismo. Mas por uma incrível série de coincidências & ndash ou não, se os itens são fraudulentos & ndash pedaços deles foram levados para nossas costas, cruzando oceanos e mudando de mãos inúmeras vezes para acabar enterrados em uma caixa perto de Barbadoes St. Mesmo que os objetos sejam & rsquot a coisa real, de uma forma que não importa. Por mais de cem anos, as pessoas os veneraram como se fossem, estabelecendo cadeias de crença que, da maneira como a transubstanciação transforma pão e vinho no corpo e sangue de Cristo, transformou fragmentos de ossos em representações físicas dos santos.

Ser santo é, normalmente, sofrer. Enquanto examinávamos as relíquias, outro funcionário da diocese entrou para dar uma olhada. Ele havia passado um tempo em Boston e nos contou sobre uma relíquia lá, cabelo da cabeça de São Maximiliano Kolbe. Kolbe era um padre polonês. Depois que os nazistas invadiram, ele e seus colegas frades abrigaram milhares de refugiados, incluindo judeus, em seu mosteiro nos arredores de Varsóvia. Eventualmente, Kolbe foi preso e levado para Auschwitz, o notório campo de extermínio. Aqui, ele se ofereceu para morrer no lugar de um estranho, juntando-se a um grupo de homens selecionados para morrer de fome em um bunker como forma de dissuasão depois que outro prisioneiro fugiu. Depois de duas semanas sem comida e água, Kolbe, que liderou os outros prisioneiros em oração, foi o único que restou vivo. Querendo que o espaço fosse esvaziado, os nazistas o mataram com produtos químicos. Kolbe supostamente encontrou sua morte com graça, levantando calmamente o braço esquerdo para receber a injeção.

Foi uma história preocupante, e o funcionário da diocese a contou muito bem. Poucos dias depois de visitarmos as relíquias, enviei um e-mail a Jones pedindo-lhe que refletisse sobre nossa visita. Ele voltou dentro de algumas horas. Embora muitas pessoas possam considerar irrelevante a recuperação de um monte de ossos velhos e joias quebradas, Jones escreveu, para crentes e não crentes, a coleção ainda era uma visão surpreendente, oferecendo uma conexão vibrante e tangível com o passado.

& ldquoLaid em tecidos de gaio são uma das conexões mais importantes de Aotearoa Nova Zelândia & rsquos com quase 2.000 anos de história europeia e com a história do cristianismo. & rdquo

E havia a piada do padre Kevin sobre nós.

Quando visitamos, entre os recipientes de relíquias estava uma velha garrafa de Schweppes que havia sido recuperada, cheia de água, da caixa de metal inundada. Dentro havia o que parecia um rolo de pergaminho ou couro, manchado de marrom escuro e com um texto fraco visível do lado de fora. Parecia significativo. Isso poderia ser algo como a descoberta dos Manuscritos do Mar Morto, Jones e eu brincamos, a revelação de um documento histórico fascinante.

Movendo-se com cuidado, Doocey tentou extrair o pergaminho usando uma pinça. Mas era muito grosso para passar pela boca da garrafa sem rasgar. Ela foi buscar um martelo. Cada baque surdo reverberou pela sala como uma contagem regressiva, aumentando a tensão. Finalmente a garrafa, coberta por um pano para evitar que os cacos explodissem por toda parte, se estilhaçou. Por quase 50 anos, este documento foi enterrado no subsolo. O que isso diria? Quando Doocey começou a desenrolá-lo com cautela, as letras lentamente apareceram. & ldquoKiwi Jackpot Lottery. & rdquo Clark enterrou três bilhetes de loteria junto com os dois potes de café com relíquias sagradas. Apontando para seu retrato sorridente, Doocey, Jones e eu caímos na gargalhada. Muito bem, padre Kevin. E embora as chances de ganharem ingressos pareçam tão improváveis ​​quanto a incrível série de coincidências que levaram as relíquias a serem desenterradas em Christchurch, Doocey ainda planeja verificar.

Refletindo depois, Jones disse o seguinte:

& ldquoEu me senti privilegiado por ter estado presente em uma ocasião notável e única, uma experiência que poucos historiadores ou arqueólogos já experimentaram. E ter sido alvo de uma boa piada. & Rdquo

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Investigando a história dos escravos de Plymouth e rsquos

Em abril, uma equipe de escavadores, liderada pelo arqueólogo Craig Chartier, examinou a propriedade de Plymouth, anteriormente pertencente ao coronel George Watson, que tinha escravos. fotos de Constance Lindner para o The Boston Globe

Um fragmento de uma jarra de tamarindo, um pedaço de cerâmica marrom-avermelhada e um pilão cinza nativo americano são algumas das descobertas que podem trazer uma nova distinção para a mais histórica das cidades americanas.

Uma escavação neste verão em um pequeno galpão e áreas próximas na North Street rendeu mais de 30.000 artefatos que datam de 1.000 anos. Mas os achados valiosos foram os fragmentos que "podem apontar para uma origem africana e o desejo [dos moradores] de manter uma conexão física, espiritual e emocional com suas origens", disse o arqueólogo Craig Chartier.

Agora, as descobertas precisam ser comparadas com os locais de escravos conhecidos nos Estados Unidos antes de determinar se o galpão, que está registrado nos arquivos online da Massachusetts Historic Commission como "senzala", é a segunda casa de escravos remanescente no Nordeste, juntando-se à Isaac Royall House em Medford.

“Há evidências muito boas de escravos no local. . . mas eu precisaria de muito mais evidências dos costumes africanos e artefatos de cultura material influenciados pela África, bem como a probabilidade de que, depois de esgotar todas as possibilidades, não poderia ser outra coisa, '' disse Chartier. Essa confirmação pode vir já neste inverno.

Chartier, que é diretor do Plymouth Archaeological Rediscovery Project, com sede em New Bedford, liderou uma equipe de trabalhadores treinados e novatos na escavação do quintal. O projeto começou em abril, com uma doação do Fundo de Preservação Comunitária de US $ 15.000 estimulada pela referência datilografada da historiadora Rose T. Briggs à casa de escravos do Coronel George Watson em um Formulário de Inventário Histórico de Massachusetts de 1967 que ela enviou em nome da Pilgrim Society.


Fragmento de Jarra de Pedra com o Nome de Rimush - História

Arqueologia Bíblica : Israel

Altar Hebraico Antigo Este antigo altar encontrado em Berseba foi usado pelos hebreus? Este altar desmontado foi descoberto nas ruínas da antiga Berseba e provavelmente foi destruído durante um avivamento, possivelmente pelo rei Ezequias. A Bíblia registra um reavivamento do rei Ezequias por volta de 715 aC e outro de Josias por volta de 621 aC. A Bíblia diz que Ezequias "removeu os altos e quebrou os pilares sagrados e cortou a Asherah. Ele também quebrou em pedaços a serpente de bronze que Moisés tinha feito, pois até aqueles dias os filhos de Israel queimavam incenso nela." (2 Reis 18: 4). É interessante que uma das pedras tenha a gravura de uma serpente!

Estela de Baal Será que este monumento de pedra de Baal era a mesma imagem que muitos israelitas adoravam? Baal, o deus da tempestade, é visto nesta Estela desencadeando uma tempestade. Ele está segurando um porrete na mão direita e uma lança na esquerda como um relâmpago, que se estende para cima na forma de uma árvore. Foi encontrado em 1932 no local da antiga Ugarit, hoje conhecido como Ras Shamra. Baal, o, era a divindade masculina suprema adorada pelos antigos cananeus e fenícios, assim como Ashtoreth era sua divindade feminina suprema. Em muitos casos, Baal foi identificado com o sol e Ashtoreth com a lua. A adoração a Baal prevalecia durante o tempo de Moisés, especialmente entre os moabitas, os midianitas e, por fim, se espalhou para os israelitas. Durante a época dos reis, o reino do norte de Israel era adorador de Baal, assim como muitos dos reis de Judá. Muitos templos foram erguidos em Baal e foram descobertos por arqueólogos. Os locais de adoração a Baal eram geralmente lugares altos nas colinas, consistindo em um altar e uma árvore sagrada, pedra ou coluna. 1 Reis 16: 30-33 “E Acabe, filho de Onri, fez o que era mau aos olhos do Senhor, mais do que tudo o que foi antes dele. E aconteceu que para ele era como se fosse uma coisa leve andar nos pecados de Jeroboão, filho de Nebate, que casou com Jezabel, filha de Etbaal, rei dos sidônios, e foi servir a Baal, e o adorou. E levantou um altar a Baal na casa de Baal, que ele havia edificado em Samaria. E Acabe fez um bosque, e Acabe fez mais para provocar à ira o Senhor Deus de Israel do que todos os reis de Israel que o antecederam. " "Em Ugarit, El era soberano, mas outro deus comandava as coisas na terra para El como seu vizir. O nome desse deus era Baal. Em Ugarit Baal era conhecido por vários títulos:" rei dos deuses ", " o Altíssimo ", "Príncipe Baal" (baal zbl) e "" o mais importante para nossa discussão "" "o Cavaleiro nas Nuvens." "- Wikipedia

Ruínas de Cesareia O rei Herodes construiu o porto mais magnífico do mundo antigo? Em 10 a.C. Augusto César decidiu reconstruir uma pequena estação costeira chamada Torre de Strato em uma nova cidade, que seria rebatizada de Cesaréia Marítima, em homenagem a Augusto. Ele atribuiu a tarefa ao mentor da arquitetura Herodes, o Grande. Herodes construiu um porto em Cesaréia que se tornaria uma das maravilhas do mundo antigo. Ele construiu um imenso quebra-mar que formou uma ferradura de proteção ao redor de toda a baía. No litoral, ele construiu algumas das obras de arquitetura mais impressionantes do mundo romano. Ele construiu um anfiteatro, uma cidadela, um palácio, um hipódromo, muralhas e portões da cidade, praças pavimentadas com enormes estátuas e outras maravilhas da civilização greco-romana. Foi aqui em Cesaréia que morava o prefeito Pôncio Pilatos, a fundação de sua casa foi sobre uma rocha no meio do porto e ainda está lá até hoje. Cesareia também era um local espetacular para construir uma cidade, pois ficava bem no centro da Planície de Sharon, uma das áreas mais férteis do mundo. Séculos de chuvas das nuvens formadas pelo vizinho Mar Mediterrâneo inundaram as colinas da Judéia e trouxeram bastante solo fértil para irrigar a planície onde se situava Cesaréia. O clima era sempre bastante quente e nunca fora de controle. Laranjas, figos, limões, uvas, amêndoas e até azeitonas nas colinas cresciam em abundância. Qualquer um que entrasse na Judéia de qualquer lugar do mundo greco-romano ficaria maravilhado com esta impressionante cidade judaica com todos os espetáculos da arte, arquitetura e cultura helenística. Tornou-se o centro administrativo dos procuradores romanos da província da Judéia e também a sede das legiões romanas. Cesaréia era de fato um lugar próspero durante o primeiro século d.C., durante a época de Jesus e do apóstolo Paulo. Acts 21:8 - And the next [day] we that were of Paul's company departed, and came unto Caesarea: and we entered into the house of Philip the evangelist, which was [one] of the seven and abode with him. Acts 25:6 - And when he had tarried among them more than ten days, he went down unto Caesarea and the next day sitting on the judgment seat commanded Paul to be brought. Acts 8:40 - But Philip was found at Azotus: and passing through he preached in all the cities, till he came to Caesarea.

Caesarea Ruins Painting Ancient Caesarea Harbor ruins in Biblical archaeology.

Caiaphas Ossuary Did this ossuary contain the bones of Caiaphas, high priest during the time of Jesus? This beautifully decorated ossuary found in the ruins of Jerusalem, contained the bones of Caiaphas, the first century AD. high priest during the time of Jesus. On the side (as seen above) and the back of the ossuary is inscribed Caiaphas' name ("Yosef bar Caifa"). (see Matt 26:3, 57 Luke 3:2 John 11:49 18:13-14, 24, 28 Acts 4:6 Josephus, Ant. 23.25, 39). It was a custom in ancient Israel to store the bones of the dead in ossuaries. They gathered the bones about a year after burial.

Corban Inscription Does this stone vessel contain an inscription with the same word used by Jesus "Corban"? This Korban Inscription is a fragment of a stone vessel excavated at the ruins of the Wailing Wall in Jerusalem. On the fragment are the 4 Hebrew consonants KRBN (kaph, resh, beth, nun), which spell the Hebrew word "korban" meaning "sacrifice." The inscribed word is the same word used by Jesus in Mark 7. With the inscription are two inscribed doves or pigeons. The Korban Inscription is from the time of Jesus and kept at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. The Korban Inscription discovery is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology because the word is mentioned by Jesus in the New Testament. "But ye say, If a man shall say to his father or mother, It is Corban, that is to say, a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me he shall be free. And ye suffer him no more to do ought for his father or his mother Making the word of God of none effect through your tradition, which ye have delivered: and many such like things do ye." Mark 7:11-13

Dead Sea Scrolls Jar Did the Dead Sea Scrolls actually contain Old Testament scrolls written hundreds of years before the time of Jesus? This Qumran Jar contained the Scroll of Isaiah, one of the hundreds of scrolls discovered in caves around the area of Qumran, on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea in Israel. The discovery which began in 1948 became known as the Dead Sea Scrolls. What is most significant about these scrolls is that they contain many of the Jewish documents known to Christians as the Old Testament. Before this discovery the oldest copies of Biblical documents of the Old Testament were from the Masoretic time, around the 9th century A.D., because the Jewish scribes took careful measures in copying documents, numbering them, and destroying the originals. The Dead Sea Scrolls date back to at least the 2nd century B.C. making them important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. This is especially important to Christians because it puts hundreds of Old Testament prophecies about Jesus, at least 2 centuries before the events took place.

El Amarna Tablets Could these tablets contain records of Joshua and the Hebrews conquering the land of Canaan? Tel el Amarna was in ancient Egypt near the Nile River about halfway between Memphis and Thebes. In 1988 there were about 400 cuneiform tablets discovered at this site which were part of the royal archives of Amenhotep III and Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) who reigned about 1400 BC. Among them were letters written in Babylonian cuneiform script to these Pharaohs of Egypt by various kings dwelling in the land of Canaan and Syria, they were written during the time of Moses. They provide the first evidence of the Hebrew tribes entering into the land of Canaan in ancient times. Some of the tablets were anxious letters written from Jerusalem (Urusalim), warning the pharaoh an invasion by the 'Habiru [Khabiru]', who were approaching from Trans-Jordan. It is interesting that Akhenaten's new capital, Akhetaton, which he built with his queen Nefertiti was at the same place as modern Amarna (Tell el Amarna). The Amarna Letters discovery is highly important in the study of Biblical Archaeology because they refer to events in the middle east in the 15th and 14th centuries BC. They refer to the Hebrews, they give evidence of the trustworthiness of the book of Judges. They mention a lot about Canaan, the half of Israel to the west of the Jordan. This name "Canaan" has been found in Egyptian inscriptions of the New Kingdom. The king of Babylon used the word Canaan to designate the entire Egyptian province of Canaan when he wrote to Pharaoh: "Canaan is thy land and its kings are thy servants" (El-Amarna 8, 25) The Tablets are from 3 inches wide and anywhere from 3 to 9 inches in length, and they are inscribed on both sides. The letters were written in Akkadian, which had been the language of international relations for some time. Today the Tell el Amarna Tablets are mainly in the British, Berlin and Cairo museums. The original name of Jerusalem was Babylonian, Uru-Salim, "the city of Salim," shortened into Salem in Gen 14:18 and in the inscriptions of the Egyptian kings Ramses II and Ramses III. In the Tell el-Amarna Letters (1400 BC) Jerusalem is still known as Uru-Salim, and its king bears a Hittite name, implying that it was at the time in the possession of the Hittites. His enemies, however, were closing around him, and one of the tablets shows that the city was eventually captured and its king slain. These enemies would seem to have been the Jebusites, since it is after this period that the name "Jebus" makes its appearance for the first time in the Old Testament (Judges 19:10,11). "But the man would not tarry that night, but he rose up and departed, and came over against Jebus, which is Jerusalem and there were with him two asses saddled, his concubine also was with him. And when they were by Jebus, the day was far spent and the servant said unto his master, Come, I pray thee, and let us turn in into this city of the Jebusites, and lodge in it." Judges 19:10-11

Gold of Ophir Inscription Does this inscription mention king Solomon's gold? This fragment of an ancient pottery jar was discovered at Tel Qasile near Jaffa in Israel. It contains an inscription which mentions "Ophir gold" and the temple of Horon, a Canaanite deity. The Gold of Ophir Inscription is important in the study of Biblical archaeology. It corresponds with what the Bible says about the gold at Solomon's Temple. "Gold of Ophir to Beth-Horon. 30 shekels" "Moreover, because I have set my affection to the house of my God, I have of mine own proper good, of gold and silver, which I have given to the house of my God, over and above all that I have prepared for the holy house, Even three thousand talents of gold, of the gold of Ophir, and seven thousand talents of refined silver, to overlay the walls of the houses withal." - I Chronicles 29:3-4

Hittite Ruins Were the Hittites a Bible myth or did they really exist? These ancient Hittite ruins date back to Biblical times. The stone lions guarded the gateway of the ancient Hittite capital city of Hattusha which is located in modern Turkey. The Hittite ruins are important in the study of Biblical archaeology, they reveal that the Hittites of the Bible really existed and were important in ancient times. 2 Kings 7:6 "For the Lord had made the host of the Syrians to hear a noise of chariots, and a noise of horses, [even] the noise of a great host: and they said one to another, Lo, the king of Israel hath hired against us the kings of the Hittites, and the kings of the Egyptians, to come upon us."

Ivory Pomegranate Fraud This ivory pomegranate was on the staff of the ancient high priest in Jerusalem. It was discovered in 1979 by French paleographer André Lemaire. It contains an inscription in Hebrew script that says, "Belonging to the Temp[le of Yahw]eh, holy to the priests." This artifact proved recently to be a forgery: "The Israel Museum removed the ivory pomegranate, touted as the only existing relic from Solomon's temple, from public exhibition last week." CBC Dec 29, 2004.

King Hazael Statue Could Hazael seen here be the same man who was anointed by Elijah? This Ivory Statuette standing nearly 7 inches tall represents Hazael, ancient King of Aram Damascus (Syria) who fought against Israel. In the Bible the Lord sent the prophet Elijah to anoint Hazael to be king over Syria in the future. Many years later the Syrian king Hadadezer became very sick and Hazael suffocated him and seized the throne. Hazael reigned for about 37 years (842-805 B.C.). He went to war with Israel in the north and Judah in the south. Assyrian records indicate wars with Syria, and an inscription by Shalmaneser III mention Hazael and his son Ben-hadad by name: "I fought with Ben-hadad. I accomplished his defeat. Hazael, son of a nobody, seized his throne." "In the 18th year of my reign for the 16th time I crossed the Euphrates. Hazael of Damascus trusted to the strength of his armies and mustered his troops in full force. Senir (Mount Hermon), a mountain summit which is in front of Lebanon, he made his stronghold. I fought with him his defeat I accomplished 600 of his soldiers with weapons I laid low 1,121 of his chariots, 470 of his horses, with his camp I took from him. To save his life, he retreated I pursued him in Damascus, his royal city, I shut him up. His plantations I cut down. As far as the mountains of the Hauran I marched. Cities without number I wrecked, razed, and burnt with fire. Their spoil beyond count I carried away. As far as the mountains of Baal-Rosh, which is a headland of the sea (at the mouth of the Nahr el-Kelb, Dog River), I marched my royal likeness I there set up. At that time I received the tribute of the Syrians and Sidonians and of Yahua (Jehu) the son of Khumri (Omri)" - Shalmaneser III 842 B.C. "Ben-Hadad II (Heb.), was the king of Aram Damascus at the time of the battle of Qarqar at 853 BC. He, along with Irhuleni of Hamath, led a coalition of eleven kings (listed as twelve) against the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III, at Qarqar, and fought Shalmaneser six times with the aid of Irhuleni twice more and possibly the rest of the coalition that fought at Qarqar. He appears again in the Tel Dan Stele as most likely the unknown author's father. " - Wikipedia This ivory statuette came from the palace of Hazael the ancient king of Damascus. It was discovered in the ruins of Arslan Tash in north Syria (ancient Hadatu) and is important in the study of Biblical archaeology. Several artifacts from the palace of Hazael are now in the Aleppo Museum in Syria. 2 Kings 13:1-3 "And the anger of The Lord was kindled against Israel, and he delivered them into the hand of Hazael king of Syria, and into the hand of Benhadad the son of Hazael, all their days." Note: The Stele of Zakkur also mentions "Bar Hadad, son of Hazael".

Tel Dan Stele Was king David's name inscribed on this black stone slab? An inscription containing the words "house of David" was found on a black basalt stone slab called the Tel Dan Stele, from Tel Dan, Israel, 9th Century B.C. It was a victory stele erected by an Aramaean king north of Israel. The inscription contains an Aramaic writing commemorating his victory over Israel. The author is most likely Hazael or his son, Ben Hadad II or III, who were kings of Damascus, and enemies of the kingdom of Israel. The stele was discovered at Tel Dan, previously named Tell el-Qadi, a mound where a city once stood at the northern tip of Israel. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem House of David Inscription, Biblical Archaeology

Temple of Solomon Column Capital Could this capital have decorated the temple of Solomon? This beautifully decorated capital of a pillar was found in the Citadel of the Kings of Judah in Jerusalem. It was made during the time of the First Temple. Similar Greek Capitals have been found at Tel Dan, Hazor, Megiddo, Samaria, Jerusalem, and Ramat Rahel in Israel and Ain Sara/Karak, and Mudaybi in Jordan. Scholars agree that this may be the palm design which decorated the First Temple in Jerusalem. 1 Kings 6:35 - "And he carved on them cherubims and palm trees and open flowers: and covered them with gold fitted upon the carved work."

The House of David Inscription Was the house and kingdom of David a Biblical myth or did they really exist? The "House of David" is inscribed on this victory stele excavated at Tel Dan, in the Galilee region of Israel. It is dated from the 9th Century BC. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. The Tel Dan Stele is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it mentions the House of David in an Inscription. With this important discovery it is clear that King David is a real figure in ancient history, as Jesus confirmed.

The Jeroboam Inscription Does this jasper seal actually mention the name of king Jeroboam? The Megiddo Seal was discovered in 1904 by an archaeological team led by Gottlieb Schumacher. The discovery was determined to be a seal belonging to a royal minister in the 8th century BC. It is engraved with the figure of a roaring lion (symbol of the kingdom of Judah) with a beautiful curved tail with beautiful workmanship. The Hebrew inscription on it reads "Shema" on top, and "Servant of Jeroboam" on the bottom. "Shema servant of Yarob'oam" The inscription actually proclaims the name and rank of its owner, one of the ministers of King Jeroboam II who reigned from 787-747 BC. The word "servant" is the Hebrew word "ebed" and is mentioned in the Bible as one of high dignity in the government. Many seals have been discovered with similar inscriptions like "the servant of the king." The Megiddo Seal with the Jeroboam Inscription is of great importance in Biblical Archaeology, it mentions one of the kings of the northern kingdom of Israel. 2 Kings 14:23-25 In the fifteenth year of Amaziah the son of Joash, king of Judah, Jeroboam the son of Joash, king of Israel, became king in Samaria, and reigned forty-one years. And he did evil in the sight of the LORD he did not depart from all the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who had made Israel sin.

The Lachish Letters Did the Lachish letters reveal the turmoil in Judah just before the Babylonian captivity? The discovery of the Lachish Letters in 1935 of eighteen ostraca (clay tablets with writing in ink) written in an ancient Hebrew script, from the 7th century BC reveal important information concerning the last days of the southern kingdom of Judah. They were discovered at Lachish (Tell ed-Duweir) among the ruins of an ancient guard room just outside the Lachish city gate. Then a few years later three inscribed potsherds were also found at the site, and like the others, they contained names and lists from the period just before the fall of Jerusalem in 586 BC. Most of the letters were dispatches from a Jewish commander named Hoshaiah who was stationed at an outpost north of Lachish, who apparently was responsible for interpreting the signals from Azekah and Lachish during the time when the Babylonians came against Jerusalem: Jer 34:7 "when the king of Babylon's army fought against Jerusalem and all the cities of Judah that were left, against Lachish and Azekah for only these fortified cities remained of the cities of Judah." The ostraca read: "To my lord Ya'osh. May Yahweh cause my lord to hear the news of peace, even now, even now. Who is your servant but a dog that my lord should remember his servant?'" These final communications which mentioned the political and religious turmoil of the last days of Judah reveal the intensity of this time period and confirm that which was written in the Bible by the prophet Jeremiah. The Lachish Letters are an important discovery in the study of Biblical Archaeology and shed much light on the last days of Judah.

The Mesha Stele Does the Moabite Stone contain the same record of king Mesha's war with Israel in the Bible? The Moabite Stone also known as the Mesha Stele is an interesting story. The Bible says in 2 Kings 3:5 that Mesha the king of Moab stopped paying tribute to Israel and rebelled and fought against Israel and later he recorded this event. This record from Mesha has been discovered. The Moabite Stone was discovered in 1868 in Moab, at Dibon, 20 miles east of the Dead Sea. It was actually discovered by a German Missionary named F.A. Klein. It is a black and blue basalt stone standing 4 feet high, 2 feet wide and 14 inches thick. It was purchased for a large sum of money by the French Consulate in Jerusalem. It is interesting that the local Arabs believed that it contained a treasure and therefore broke it in large pieces by lighting it on fire and then pouring cold water over it. The inscription is summarized with these words: "I Mesha, king of Moab, made this monument to Chemosh, to commemorate deliverance from Israel. My father reigned over Moab 30 years, and I reigned after my father. Omri, king of Israel oppressed Moab many days, and his son (Ahab) after him. But I made war against the king of Israel and drove him out, and took his cities, Medeba, Ataroth, Nebo, and Jahaz, which he built while he waged war against me. I destroyed his cities, and devoted the spoil to Chemosh, and the women and girls to Ashtar. I built Qorhah with prisoners from Israel." The Moabite Stone discovery is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. It is the actual record of Mesha, king of Moab rebelling against the king of Israel. This stone is one of the places where Israel is mentioned in ancient times outside of the Bible. "And Mesha king of Moab was a sheepmaster, and rendered unto the king of Israel an hundred thousand lambs, and an hundred thousand rams, with the wool. But it came to pass, when Ahab was dead, that the king of Moab rebelled against the king of Israel." - 2 Kings 3:4-5

The Place of Trumpeting Inscription Does this stone provide evidence that the Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed in 70 AD? The stone containing the Place of Trumpeting Inscription was discovered by archaeologists excavating the Temple Mount area. It is inscribed with the words "To the place of trumpeting." The Place of Trumpeting Inscription is a remarkable discovery in Biblical Archaeology and an awesome testimony of what once was, the Temple in Jerusalem. "Then Jesus went out and departed from the temple, and His disciples came up to show Him the buildings of the temple. And Jesus said to them, "Do you not see all these things? Assuredly, I say to you, not one stone shall be left here upon another, that shall not be thrown down." Matthew 24:1-2

The Pontius Pilate Inscription Does this stone contain an inscription from Pontius Pilate? In June 1961 Italian archaeologists led by Dr. Frova were excavating an ancient Roman theater near Caesarea Maritima and uncovered this interesting limestone block. On the face is an inscription which is part of a larger dedication to Tiberius Caesar which clearly says that it was from "Pontius Pilate, Prefect of Judea." It reads like this:
Line One: TIBERIEUM,
Line Two: (PON) TIUS
Line Three: (PRAEF) ECTUS IUDA (EAE)
The Pilate Inscription is the only known occurrence of the name Pontius Pilate in any ancient inscription. Visitors to the Caesarea theater today see a replica, the original is in the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. There have been a few bronze coins found that were struck form 29-32 AD by Pontius Pilate. The Pontius Pilate Inscription is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology and confirms the Scriptures found in the Bible as historical.

A Inscrição Siloé Does this inscription reveal God's protection of Jerusalem and a miracle? The Siloam Inscription is a description in ancient Hebrew of the cutting and completion of the Siloam Tunnel built by king Hezekiah (727-698 BC). King Hezekiah desiring to protect Jerusalem from the Assyrians had a tunnel cut through solid rock to bring water from the Spring of Gihon within the cities walls, after which the Spring was sealed off. The carving was found in the tunnel itself in 1880 by a boy accidently. It records how two groups of workers started from opposite ends, digging through the solid rock underground and meeting in the middle. The Hebrew inscription talks about how one group miraculously heard sounds of pick-axes so they would know which way to go through the windy tunnel. The tunnel now channels water to the Pool of Siloam and can be seen in Jerusalem. The Siloam Inscription is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. 2 Kings 20:20 "And the rest of the acts of Hezekiah, and all his might, and how he made a pool, and a conduit, and brought water into the city, [are] they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah?" 2 Chronicles 32:2-4 "And when Hezekiah saw that Sennacherib was come, and that he was purposed to fight against Jerusalem, He took counsel with his princes and his mighty men to stop the waters of the fountains which [were] without the city: and they did help him. So there was gathered much people together, who stopped all the fountains, and the brook that ran through the midst of the land, saying, Why should the kings of Assyria come, and find much water?"

The Temple Warning Inscription What did Jesus think when he saw this stone? Josephus the Jewish historian of the first century A.D. wrote about the warning signs in Greek and Latin that were placed on the barrier wall that separated the court of the gentiles from the other courts in the Temple. Not until 1871 did archaeologists actually discover one written in Greek. Its seven line inscription reads as follows: NO FOREIGNER IS TO GO BEYOND THE BALUSTRADE AND THE PLAZA OF THE TEMPLE ZONE WHOEVER IS CAUGHT DOING SO WILL HAVE HIMSELF TO BLAME FOR HIS DEATH WHICH WILL FOLLOW When king Herod had rebuilt the Temple in Jerusalem between 19 and 9 B.C. he enclosed the outer court with colonnades. The large separated area was referred to as the Court of the Gentiles because the "gentiles" (non-Jews from any race or religion) were permitted to enter this great open courtyard of the Temple area. They could walk within in it but they were forbidden to go any further than the outer court. They were excluded from entering into any of the inner courts, and warning signs in Greek and Latin were placed giving strict warning that the penalty for such trespass was death. The Romans permitted the Jewish authorities to carry out the death penalty for this offence, even if the offender were a Roman citizen. The engraved block of limestone was discovered in Jerusalem in 1871. It's dimensions are about 22 inches high by 33 inches long. Each letter was nearly 1 1/2 inches high and originally painted with red ink against the white limestone. Part of another sign was unearthed in 1936. It's current location is in the Archaeological Museum of Istanbul, Turkey. Jerusalem was part of the Ottoman Empire in Turkey when the stone was found. The Temple Warning Inscription is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology and confirms events outlined in Scripture. When Jesus saw this inscription he knew that his own life would be the cost for the gentiles to go past this barrier. Ephesians 2:13-14 "But now in Christ Jesus ye who sometimes were far off are made nigh by the blood of Christ. For he is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us" Matthew 23:13 "But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you shut off the kingdom of heaven from people for you do not enter in yourselves, nor do you allow those who are entering to go in." Isaiah 56:7 "These I will bring to my holy mountain and give them joy in my house of prayer. Their burnt offerings and sacrifices will be accepted on my altar for my house will be called a house of prayer for all nations." Mark 11:17-18 "And he taught, saying unto them, Is it not written, My house shall be called of all nations the house of prayer? but ye have made it a den of thieves. And the scribes and chief priests heard it, and sought how they might destroy him: for they feared him, because all the people was astonished at his doctrine."

Uzziah Inscription Could this tablet mention the name of one of Jerusalem's most famous kings. Uzziah? The Bible mentions Uzziah or Azariah as the king of the southern kingdom of Judah in 2 Kings 15. The Uzziah Tablet Inscription is a stone tablet (35 cm high x 34 cm wide x 6 cm deep) with letters inscribed in ancient Hebrew text with an Aramaic style of writing, which dates to around 30-70 AD. The text reveals the burial site of Uzziah of Judah, who died in 747 BC. The inscription on the ossuary tombstone reads: "The bones of Uzziah, King of Judah, rest here . Do not open!" The Uzziah Tablet Inscription was discovered in Jerusalem in 1931 by Professor. E. I. Sukenik of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and is now in the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. The Uzziah Tablet is an important discovery in the study of Biblical Archaeology because it mentions one of the kings of Judah, and the Jewish authorities would not have crafted such a piece unless there was an original work to draw from. It is interesting that the Tiglath-pileser inscription mentions Uzziah four times (Azariah the Judean). Tiglath-pileser was the Assyrian ruler who deported the Jews of the northern kingdom of Israel away into captivity. Isaiah 6:1 "In the year that king Uzziah died I saw also the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, and his train filled the temple."


Saints in coffee jars: The relics recovered from a Christchurch icon

The former Catholic Diocese of Christchurch archivist died last September. But here he is, looking down at us in the diocese offices, a nondescript building near the Washington Way skatepark. In the photograph, framed and mounted on the wall, Clark sports an almost mischievous grin &ndash apparently he had a wicked sense of humour.

Almost 50 years ago, on April 26, 1975 &ndash the year Robert Muldoon was first elected to power and Dame Whina Cooper led a hīkoi to parliament protesting the ongoing loss of Māori land &ndash Clark carefully placed a collection of holy relics in a steel box. It was buried under the floor of the Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament, one of the finest church buildings in Australasia, and sealed over with an inch of concrete.

But he obviously thought there was a chance someone would unearth them because he left a note. In it, Clark says the relics were collected by Bishop John Joseph Grimes SM, the first Catholic bishop of Christchurch and the driving force behind the construction of the cathedral. Grimes, an Englishman, acquired several hundred relics during his lifetime, many during trips to Europe. A contemporaneous and perhaps self-aggrandising document in the diocese archives describes the collection as the richest in the southern hemisphere.

&ldquoNearly three hundred in number, the most precious is a large one of the True Cross. Next in importance are relics of the apostles, the principal martyrs, confessors and virgins of several centuries of the church,&rdquo the account reads.

But by the 1970s, relics were no longer considered du jour in the church. A decision was made to bury them, and Clark was the man for the job. The Friday before last, a week after they were retrieved from the demolished cathedral, The Spinoff visited the archives with Dr Chris Jones, an expert on medieval Europe and associate professor at the University of Canterbury (UC). Having previously described the collection as a sort of who&rsquos who of Christianity, Jones was incredibly excited. Our guide was Triona Doocey, a gregarious, wonderful Irishwoman and the current diocese archivist.

&ldquoMost people collect postcards,&rdquo Doocey said, referring to Grimes. &ldquoHe collected relics.&rdquo

Incredibly, Clark or someone else had made the decision to bury the relics in Gregg&rsquos coffee jars. Coffee jars! Somewhat staggered by the profane nature of the receptacles, Jones joked that even Martin Luther, the German priest and a leading figure in the Reformation movement challenging the Catholic Church, wouldn&rsquot have gone that far. Doocey, who had donned black gloves and was laying out the relics on sheets of blue and white Chux cloth (CSI this was not) said she&rsquod take it up with Clark when they next saw each other in Heaven.

A selection of reliquaries, in an unusual vessel (Photo: Oliver Lewis)

But the jars worked &ndash mostly. The metal box housing them was found encased in concrete and full of water, flooding that almost certainly took place during the demolition process. Doocey had to carefully drain some of the waterlogged containers. Of the two large Gregg&rsquos jars, one was filled with numerous metal reliquaries, ornate little receptacles bearing the names of the holy figures whose relics they supposedly contained. Saint Francis of Assisi was there, as was Mary Magdalene, a witness to the crucifixion.

But the more interesting jar, at least for the morbidly curious, was the one packed full of bones. I had to keep reminding myself that these were human remains regardless of their veracity as objects of veneration they were clearly from people who once lived. As Doocey opened the jar and began pulling out the fragments, she puckered her nose. The smell was cold and earthy &ndash like wet clay and decay. Jones was enthused, remarking how strange it was to be in the presence of the relics, how close they made him feel to the Middle Ages.

Father Kevin was still above us on the wall, smiling.

Relics are a form of physical memory, a direct and tangible connection to the divine. According to Jones, they are objects that can be considered to be repositories of spiritual power. There are numerous famous fakes and frauds &ndash the multiple foreskins of Christ, for instance, or the Shroud of Turin &ndash but for many relics, the UC scholar believes we would be wrong to be incredulous. It is possible to trace their authenticity and provenance, particularly those from the Middle Ages onwards. Helpfully, a church council in the 13th century mandated that any new relics had to be authenticated before they could be displayed. Along with the items themselves, Bishop Grimes collected authentication certificates in a large, leather-bound ledger. The diocese archives still has it, a catalogue of saints and martyrs written in Latin.

As a journalist, I&rsquom sceptical. But I want to believe.

On the table in front of us is a human jawbone mottled with age. It appears to be labelled with the word &ldquoVincent&rdquo. Doocey has laid out all the fragments. To our surprise, many are large &ndash not the humble flakes and scrapings of bone we had imagined. There is a vertebra, and over there part of an arm or leg bone. Along with the archaeologist working on the cathedral demolition, Doocey plans to photograph each of the bones and then, working with the ledger describing the relics, try to identify each one. The diocese has yet to decide what to do with them, but it seems likely that at least some will be buried in the new cathedral. In the meantime, Doocey means to see to it that they are treated with the reverence and respect owed to the dead.

Among them is Peter Chanel, a French missionary who was hacked to death on the island of Futuna in 1841 &ndash the first Oceanic saint. On the table in the diocese offices, Chanel is in a plastic bag. Or, more accurately, one of his bones is. The fragment was ground down, mixed with relics from several other saints, apparently including Thomas Becket &ndash the English archbishop who angered the king and was murdered in his own cathedral in 1170 &ndash and placed in a cavity cut into the new high altar of the Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament in the 1970s.

That it was recovered at all is more than a little miraculous. During the demolition, tonnes and tonnes of rubble came crashing down into the interior of the cathedral, crushing the high altar to smithereens. The way Doocey tells it, the archaeologist was sifting through the ruins when she came upon its fragments. Incredibly, the piece of marble the relics were interred behind was still whole and identifiable, so she was able to scrape up the fragments and preserve them.

The bones of saints, supposedly (photo: Oliver Lewis)

I f you walk down Barbadoes St today, the gap where the cathedral once stood is obvious: a fenced-off, desolate wasteland. The building, once one of the most beautiful in the city if not the country, opened in 1905. For more than a century, it loomed over everything, a spiritual monument erected in creamy Ōamaru stone and decorated with imposing, classical columns. Inscribed above them on the entablature was a command written in Latin, a directive beseeching onlookers to &ldquoLook! This is the place where God is among men!&rdquo

God has since left the building. For people familiar with the city and the cathedral, walking past you can feel its absence, that sense of disorientation common to Cantabrians who experienced the 2010 and 2011 earthquakes &ndash who saw landmarks erased, the seemingly permanent razed to the ground. The diocese plans to erect a new cathedral on a more central site, but I loved the old building and, biking past most days, I felt I had to write something to commemorate its fate.

At first, I thought it would be about the demolition workers. How must they feel, I thought, to be involved in the destruction of something so beautiful, so resonate with meaning. Last December, I spotted a man in high vis leaning over the fence on a break. So I asked him. &ldquoI feel the significance,&rdquo he said. It was hard not to, he added, especially when some of the people who came to watch had tears running down their faces. Then he said something that stopped me in my tracks. There were bones somewhere in the building, and they were hundreds of years old. O que? I thought he might be talking about the three dead bishops buried in the cathedral, including Grimes. No, not them, he clarified. Holy relics.

Christchurch is far removed from the significant figures and events of Christianity. But by an incredible series of coincidences &ndash or not, if the items are fraudulent &ndash bits of them have washed up on our shores, crossing oceans and changing hands countless times to end up buried in a box off Barbadoes St. Even if the objects aren&rsquot the real thing, in a way it doesn&rsquot matter. For more than a hundred years, people have venerated them as if they were, establishing chains of belief that, in the way transubstantiation turns bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ, has transformed fragments of bone into physical representations of the saints.

To be a saint is, usually, to suffer. As we were looking over the relics, another diocese employee walked in to take a look. He had spent time in Boston and told us about a relic there, hair from the head of Saint Maximilian Kolbe. Kolbe was a Polish priest. After the Nazis invaded, he and his fellow friars provided shelter to thousands of refugees, including Jews, at their monastery outside Warsaw. Eventually, Kolbe was arrested and taken to Auschwitz, the notorious death camp. Here he volunteered to die in place of a stranger, joining a group of men selected to starve to death in a bunker as a deterrent after another prisoner ran away. After two weeks without food and water, Kolbe, who had led the other prisoners in prayer, was the only one left alive. Wanting the space emptied, the Nazis killed him with chemicals. Kolbe reportedly met his death with grace, calmly lifting his left arm to receive the injection.

It was a sobering story, and the diocese employee told it well. A few days after we had visited the relics, I sent Jones an email asking him to reflect on our visit. He came back within a few hours. While many people might consider the recovery of a bunch of old bones and broken jewellery to be irrelevant, Jones wrote, for believers and non-believers alike the collection was still an astounding sight offering a vibrant and tangible connection to the past.

&ldquoLaid out on jay cloths are one of Aotearoa New Zealand&rsquos most important connections to nearly 2,000 years of European history, and to the story of Christianity.&rdquo

And then there was the joke played on us by Father Kevin.

When we visited, among the relics containers was an old Schweppes bottle that had been recovered, full of water, from the flooded metal box. Inside was what looked like a scroll of parchment or leather, stained dark brown and with faint text visible on the outside. It looked significant. This could be something like the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, Jones and I joked, the revelation of a fascinating historical document.

Moving carefully, Doocey tried to extract the scroll using tweezers. But it was too thick to pull through the mouth of the bottle without ripping. She went to get a hammer. Each dull thwack reverberated through the room like a countdown, ratcheting up the tension. Finally the bottle, covered by a cloth to prevent the shards from exploding everywhere, shattered. For almost 50 years, this document had been buried underground. What would it say? As Doocey gingerly started to unroll it, the lettering slowly came into view. &ldquoKiwi Jackpot Lottery.&rdquo Clark had buried three Lotto tickets along with the two coffee jars of holy relics. Pointing to his smiling portrait, Doocey, Jones and I erupted in laughter. Well played, Father Kevin. And while the chances of them being winning tickets seems about as unlikely as the incredible series of coincidences that led to the relics being unearthed in Christchurch in the first place, Doocey still plans to check.

Reflecting afterwards, Jones said this:

&ldquoI felt privileged to have been present at a remarkable and unique occasion, one very few historians or archaeologists will ever experience. And to have been the butt of a rather good joke.&rdquo

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Boundary Stones by Richard Brown, 2001

&hellip..These boundaries are distinguished by march stones, set at small distances from each other. In some places there are two rows, about seven feet distant&hellip&hellip


From &lsquoThe History of Rutherglen&rdquo


On this site there are two march, or boundary, stones which in the past were used as markers to define the legal limits of the Royal Burgh of Rutherglen. The carved stones sited here (in part inspired by the drawings and ideas of local school children) represent the history of the Burgh and the Farme Cross area from its inception to the present day as follows:
1. A sword with the crest of the Burgh as the pommel, representing the granting of &lsquoRoyal Burgh&rsquo status in 1126 and the event of parliament sitting in Rutherglen in 1300.


2. A rope leads from a pit-wheel, through river paddle steamers, to a spinning wheel producing a spray of woven cloth. These images represent the varied industry of the area from mining, rope making and ship building through to weaving and dye work.


3. A spark-plug, with road detail behind, in reference to the site&rsquos former use as a garage, the areas connection with taxi firms and its position as a gateway to and from Glasgow.


4. The future is symbolised by an &lsquoexploded&rsquo atom and a DNA double helix strand referring to advances in medical and biological science. A circuit board design and &lsquonetted&rsquo Globe relate to international communications and the World Wide Web.


An Environmental Improvement/Public Art Partnership between:
Scottish Enterprise Lanarkshire and South Lanarkshire Council.


Egyptosophy

Three Aramaic incantation bowls, also called “magic bowls.” Bowls such as these probably stem from the late Sassanid period (sixth to seventh centuries) though both earlier (mid-fourth to fifth centuries) and later (eighth century) dates have been suggested. Most Aramaic incantation bowls come from the area around Nippur, in the heart of ancient Mesopotamia. Physically, they are common wheel-made earthenware bowls characteristic of the Late Antique Near East. The incantations are typically written in black ink spiraling from the inside to the outside, so that the bowl must be turned as it is read. The incantations are written in one of three dialects of Aramaic, a Semitic language closely related to Hebrew: Mandaic, Syriac (in two different scripts), and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic (with various sub-dialects). YBC 15334 is written in Mandaic (edited in Müller-Kessler 2005: 121-122, 236 [Tafel 30]) YBC 2359 and YBC 2393 are written in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic (both edited in Obermann 1940), though the latter has some Mandaic features as well. In general, the incantations are directed against evil spirits, various illnesses, and the curses of demons and humans, and they reflect Jewish, Christian, and Mandaean religious traditions and also preserve remnants of Iranian and Mesopotamian religions. The incantations in many of the bowls, including the three described here, are surrounded by an inner and/or outer circle of ink. These ink circles may be abstractions of the uroboros, the Egyptian serpent eating its own tail, which is commonly depicted on so-called “magic gems” from Egypt. In support of this connection, one can point to depictions of the ouroboros on bowls in other collections, for example, on the inside of a bowl in the Babylonian Section of the University of Pennsylvania Museum (CBS 16087 edited in Montgomery 1913: 54, 185-187, plate xvi) and on the outside of a bowl in the British Museum (BM 91712 edited in Segal 2000: 147-148, plate 134).

Período

Dimensões

Material

Museu

Yale Babylonian Collection

Accession Number

Julian Obermann, "Two Magic Bowls: New Incantation Texts from Mesopotamia," The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures 57 (1940): 1-31.

James A. Montgomery, Aramaic Incantation Texts from Nippur. University of Pennsylvania. The Museum Publications of the Babylonian Section 3 Philadelphia: University Museum, 1913.

Christa Muller-Kessler, Die Zauberschalentexte in der Hilprecht-Sammlung, Jena, und weitere Nippur-Texte anderer Sammlungen. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2005. J. B. Segal, Catalogue of the Aramaic and Mandaic Incantation Bowls in the British Museum. London: British Museum Press, 2000.


Assista o vídeo: cobre jarra e tarças (Junho 2022).


Comentários:

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